Kristy Pauling


  1. Does cigarette smoking hinder fracture healing? Introduction

    Currently in New Zealand 21.1% of men and 18.8% of women smoke (Ministry of Health, 2015). The Maori smoking rate is at 41% in New Zealand (Dempsey, Hillege, & Hill, 2014 ). As smoking can effect healing, this means that potentially a lot of the population’s bones may not heal normally if they were to suffer a fracture. This is a big issue in New Zealand and is seen regularly at fracture clinics across the country. Bone healing is a long and complicated process which requires t…